Historical Development of Buddhism in the Himalayan Region

Shrong Tsong Gompo started Buddhism in 7th century in the

himalayan region.He has two wives; one Nepali and another Chinese, both of them are Buddhists, so by the influence of his wives, Gompo sent 16 people to India to develop script among them two people only returned by with knowledge of script.During that time there was no Tibetan Script. During 9th century the 38th King of Tibet Called Shanta. Rakshit (great Scholar) but Bon protested the King.King sent Shanta Rakshit back but Rakshit recommended PadhmaSambhav.Padhma Sambhav also called Guru Rimpoche was bold,courageous and he did tit for tat with Bon.Samya Gomba was First Gomba in Tibet built by Padhmasambhav. Bon Protested his act but he chased Bon.Ghar Gumba of Mustang was first gumba in Nepal and some believe older then Samaya Gumba.In the 7th century on his way from India to Tibet and is a very important place where blessed the place and made his own statue which can still be found in the Ghar Gompa of Mustang. It is believed that Padmasambhava meditation in Timal (Yarinak),Pharping(Asura Cave ) Halesi (Maratika Caves) and Mustang(Chungsi Cave) . These places are sacred landscape and himalayan heritages too.During 10th century Lang Darma became the Prime minister of Tibet,He was Bon,He destroyed Buddhism in Tibet, In 11th century Buddhism was reformed by 42th king of Tibet,He sent people to read Buddhism in India but captured by Bon for stopping Buddhism or giving plenty of gold.He was ready to die but did not act whatever Bon asked,He called Guru ‘Atisha’,He incorporated some good aspects of Bon in Buddhism so that Bon people also could agree on them.Hence, slowly and gradually Buddhism was developed in the Himalayan Region

Four Sects/ Lineage of Tibetan Buddhism

1. Nyingmapa/ wa

It was started by Padhma Sambhav,some aspects of Bonpo also borrowed.The five colours flag in Buddhism and represent. Red- fire, Blue-sky, Green- water,Yellow – earth,White- Air

2 Sakyapa

Named after Sakya Kunga Sampo,Sakyapa is associated with Gray colour.It focuses on both debate and meditation.Most of the Gomba in Mustang belong to Sakyapa Sect.Maitri Buddha Gomba (Jhyampa Lakhum) of Bouddhanath also belong to Sakyapa sect

3. Kagyupa

The main proponents are Marpa and Milarepa. Focuses on self realisation and oral transmission

They believe on meditation rather than text.They said “ You travel to the way of being Buddha”

Bhaktapur,Helambu,Manang are the places where ‘Milarepa’ meditated.

4. Gelugpa

Dalai Lama was related to it

TsongKhapa was the founder of this sect,focused on oral, clap and debate- conclusion comes from it.Debate for Anitya, Anatma and Dukha